Viral Diseases

Animals Involved

Nonhuman primates, some wild and pet rodents, including Gambian rats, dormice, prairie dogs, African squirrels, some other mammals such as opossums; full host range uncertain

Known Distributions

West and central Africa

Probable Means of Spreading

Contact with lesions, blood or body fluids, fomites; bites; aerosols during close contact

Clinical Manifestations in People

Smallpox­like disease; flu­like symptoms followed by maculopapular rash, which develops into vesicles, pustules, scabs; lymphadenopathy prominent; respiratory signs, encephalitis possible; case fatality rate varies with strain, <1% to 10%–17% or higher; milder in those vaccinated for smallpox

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