Japanese Encephalitis (Japanese B encephalitis)

Viral Diseases

Animals Involved

Swine, wild birds are important maintenance hosts; horses ill but epidemiologically unimportant in amplification; other mammals, reptiles, amphibians may be infected, usually asymptomatically

Known Distributions

Asia, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Pacific islands from Japan to the Philippines

Probable Means of Spreading

Mosquito bites (Culex tritaeniorhynchus) important in maintenance cycle, other Culex and Aedes spp can transmit); also through broken skin or mucous membranes after direct contact with infected tissues

Clinical Manifestations in People

Fever, chills, myalgia, severe headache, GI symptoms; can progress to severe encephalitis; neurologic sequelae very common in survivors of encephalitis; case fatality rate 15%–30%

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