Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)

Viral Diseases

Animals Involved

Rodents; each virus tends to be associated with a single reservoir host, but Seoul virus is carried by both Rattus norvegicus and R rattus

Known Distributions

Europe, Asia; Seoul virus is worldwide

Probable Means of Spreading

Aerosols from rodent excretions and secretions; contact with broken skin and mucous membranes; rodent bites

Clinical Manifestations in People

Prodromal stage with abrupt onset of fever, headache, back pain, sometimes petechiae, GI signs (may be severe); followed by hypotension, renal signs to renal failure with oliguria; hemorrhage, other syndromes in some; mortality rate varies with the virus, from <1% (Puumala virus) to 10%–15% (Hantaan virus)

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