Schistosomiasis, intestinal and hepatic

Parasitic Diseases, Trematodes (Flukes)

Animals Involved

Many mammals, including cattle, water buffalo (important host in Asia), swine, dogs, cats, deer, horses, nonhuman primates, and rodents, are definitive hosts; snails are intermediate hosts

Known Distributions

Asia

Probable Means of Spreading

Penetration of unbroken skin by cercariae from infected snails in water

Clinical Manifestations in People

Acute disease can include urticarial rash, mild signs, isolated pulmonary signs, or Katayama syndrome (occurs especially after first infection; febrile illness, sometimes with cough, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hepatosplenomegaly, and/or rash/urticaria); apparent clinical recovery may be followed by chronic intestinal schistosomiasis with abdominal pain/discomfort, diarrhea ± blood; chronic hepatic schistosomiasis with hepatosplenomegaly followed by liver fibrosis, ascites, portal hypertension with hematemesis and/or melena, portocaval shunting with pulmonary signs; ectopic parasites can cause seizures, paralysis, meningoencephalitis; intestinal and hepatic lesions tend to progress rapidly; death can occur

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