Hirudiniasis (internal)

Parasitic Diseases, Annelids (Leeches)

Animals Involved

Cattle, buffalo, other domestic and wild mammals, probably frogs

Known Distributions

Africa, Asia, southern Europe, Middle East

Probable Means of Spreading

Drinking unfiltered water (leech enters nares or mouth), wading in deep water (enters genitourinary tract)

Clinical Manifestations in People

Attaches to nasopharynx, pharynx, esophagus, occasionally deeper in respiratory tract, or in genitourinary tract; pressure and/or pain at attachment site; bleeding (eg, hemoptysis, hematemesis, epistaxis, vaginal bleeding), anemia (can be severe); other signs depend on location

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