Gnathostomiasis

Parasitic Diseases, Nematodes (Roundworms)

Animals Involved

Dogs, cats, wild carnivores are definitive hosts (G doloresi and G hispidum in pigs and wild boars); copepods, freshwater fish, eels, frogs, snakes, chickens, snails, pigs are intermediate or paratenic hosts

Known Distributions

Worldwide; most human cases from Asia; emerging along Pacific coast of Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, Argentina

Probable Means of Spreading

Ingestion of undercooked fish, poultry, or other intermediate or paratenic host, drinking water contaminated with copepods containing larvae; handling meat that contains larvae

Clinical Manifestations in People

Fever, malaise, gastroenteritis, urticaria, soon after ingestion; migratory skin lesions (intermittent swelling, often painful or pruritic, or linear erythematous lesions) after weeks to years; may involve viscera, eye, or CNS; CNS involvement can be fatal or result in permanent damage with reported case fatality rates of 7%–25%

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