Bacterial Diseases
More Information

Animals Involved

Rabbits, rodents, cats, sheep, other mammals, birds, reptiles, fish; often in wild animals

Known Distributions

F tularensis subsp tularensis almost exclusively in North America; F tularensis subsp holarctica in North America, Europe, Asia; F tularensis subsp mediasiatica in Central Asia; F tularensis subsp novicida reported in North America, Australia, Spain

Probable Means of Spreading

Contact with mucous membranes, broken skin; insect bites (tabanids, mosquitoes, hard ticks); fomites; ingestion in food or water; inhalation

Clinical Manifestations in People

Nonspecific febrile illness, lymphadenitis; ulcerative skin lesions, exudative pharyngitis and stomatitis, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, respiratory signs or pneumonia, sepsis; case fatality rate 5% (localized disease, untreated) to >50% (untreated typhoidal form or severe respiratory disease)

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