Bacterial Diseases
More Information

Animals Involved

Domestic and wild animals; reservoir hosts include rodents, dogs, cattle, pigs, farmed red deer, others

Known Distributions


Probable Means of Spreading

Occupational and recreational exposure, or exposure to rodent­ contaminated material in urban locations; especially skin, mucous membrane contact with contaminated urine, infected fetuses, or reproductive fluids; water­ and foodborne

Clinical Manifestations in People

Asymptomatic to severe, sometimes biphasic; nonspecific febrile illness followed by aseptic meningitis or icteric form (especially liver, kidney, CNS involvement, hemorrhages possible); pulmonary hemorrhage and edema, other syndromes; uveitis can be sequela; case fatality rate varies with syndrome (uncommon in aseptic meningitis, 5%–15% in icteric form, 30%–60% in severe pulmonary form)

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