Bacterial Diseases
More Information

Animals Involved

Mainly in cattle, sheep, goats, horses, wild herbivorous animals; virtually all mammals and some birds are susceptible to high dose

Known Distributions

Worldwide but distribution is focal; common in Africa, Asia, South America, Middle East, parts of Europe

Probable Means of Spreading

Occupational contact exposure (abraded skin, mechanical transmission by biting flies, other routes); ingestion/foodborne, rarely airborne

Clinical Manifestations in People

Early signs vary with route of inoculation; papule to ulcerative skin lesions; mild to severe gastroenteritis ± hematemesis, bloody diarrhea, ascites (abdominal GI form); sore throat, dysphagia, fever, neck swelling, mouth lesions (oropharyngeal GI form); pneumonia; all may progress to sepsis, meningitis; untreated cases fatal in 5%–20% (cutaneous) to 100% (inhalation)

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